Story of Buddha &The Four Noble Truths
of the Buddha
2. Basic Concepts
Marks of Reality:
a. Anicca - impermanence. All things, including ourselves, in flux. One tries but cannot cling to anything, as all things arise and pass.
Samsara is a chain -- eliminate one link,
exit from the process. Weakest links: ignorance and craving. Eliminated through meditation, learning,
Dukkha: suffering, unsatisfactoriness
c. Anatman: No Self
i. There is no permanent reality behind phenomenal reality: all is process, change.
ii. Right perception reveals that there is no permanent, underlying thing that is constant
1. There is no self that is constant: he individual is composed of “groups of events” (skandas): Bodily events, perceptions, feelings, dispositions, states of consciousness. = temporary combination of such events
iii. There is transmigration but no permanent soul
Nirvana: "blowing out." Ineffable, transcendental state,
ultimate. Involves no union with God.
Escapes ordinary language:
Four Noble Truths
is dominated by suffering: Separation from the things you love; not
getting what it is you want. Unavoidable experience of things you despise:
sickness, old age, death.
2. The cause of suffering is desire and craving
of rebirth, suffering, death, rebirth...is perpetuated
by desire. Clinging to the impermanent.
from suffering is possible. Stop clinging. Craving for sensual experience,
for better rebirth, even for extinction, can be renounced. Blowing out the flame of a candle.
4. The way out of suffering is the Noble Eightfold Path.
d. Right view, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.
e. These lead to release from samsara.
f. Asvagosha’s division of the eightfold path:
i. Morality: speech, action, livelihood
ii. Meditation: effort, mindfullness, concentration
iii. Insight or Wisdom: views and thought
Major Sects in Buddhism