Winnicott

 

HISTORY

 

Freud: isolated the individual (like a medical patient) to understand nature and dynamics of the processes within him.

 

Early 20s: child analysis. Anna Freud in Vienna: child’s immature ego, actual dependence on parents; Melanie Klein in London: no difference in technique with children. deal with unconscious fantasy through play

Klein: From psychological implications of the 3-body relationship to 2-body.

The earliest stages of emotional development.  Esp.: implications for depression.

 

Winnicott: pediatrician, influenced by PA, observation and history-taking, individual psychotherapy.

 

 

 

NATURE AND FUNCTION OF MATERNAL PROVISION

 

“There is no such thing as an infant” (without maternal care, no infant)

(Scientific Meeting of the British Psychoanalytic Society, 1940).

 

Holding environment: corresponds to earliest, “holding” phase of development, maximal dependence

 

Gradual failing of adaptation on the part of the mother

 

Concern from birth with problem of:

what is objectively perceived / what is subjectively conceived of

            objective perception based on reality testing  / primary creativity, use of illusion

 

Transitional objects: early stages of use of illusion

 

Play

 

 

 

 

Pruyser’s Categories Based on Winnicott

 

Autistic World

Illusionistic World

Realistic World

Untutored fantasy

Omnipotent thinking

Utter whimsicality

Free associations

Halucinatory entities or events

Private needs

Symptoms

Dreaming

Sterility

Internal object

Tutored fantasty

Adventurous thinking

Orderly imagination

Inspired connections

Imaginative entities or events

Cultural needs

Symbols

Playing

Creativeness

Transcendent objects prefigured by child’s transitional object

Sense perception

Reality testing

Hard, undeniable facts

Logical connections

Actual entities or events

 

Factual needs

Signs, indices

Working

Resourcefulness

External object