Freud: isolated the individual (like a medical
patient) to understand nature and dynamics of the processes within him.
fantasy systems allow one to cope with biological/instinctual inner needs and
the demands of external reality.
of inside/outside -- inner reality
- Id and
Superego demands, ego’s mediation -- within the individual
Early 20s: child analysis. Anna Freud in Vienna: child’s
immature ego, actual dependence on parents; Melanie Klein in London: no
difference in technique with children. deal with
unconscious fantasy through play
Klein: From psychological implications of
the 3-body relationship to 2-body.
The earliest stages of emotional
implications for depression.
influenced by PA, observation and history-taking, individual psychotherapy.
earliest stages, doesn’t make sense to speak of inner and outer reality
of bounded inner reality and objective perception (reality testing)
reference to a third, intermediate area between the two, in which the baby
gradually develops a sense of what is me and not-me
(ego), and is able to recognize and accept reality.
experience, not entirely make of internal fantasy, and not entirely drawn
from external reality
state, transitional space, transitional phenomena, objects
NATURE AND FUNCTION OF MATERNAL PROVISION
“There is no such thing as an infant” (without maternal
care, no infant)
(Scientific Meeting of the British
Psychoanalytic Society, 1940).
infant and the maternal care together form a unit
needs its mother, mother enjoys caring for baby, father facilitates and
protects mother-child bond
have an innate tendency toward growth, growth must be facilitated
Holding environment: corresponds to earliest, “holding”
phase of development, maximal dependence
absolute dependence toward independence
moves from no control whatsoever (passive) to developing means for doing
temporarily without maternal care -- via accumulation of memories of
care, confidence in environment
Freud’s notion of infantile hallucinations, wish-fulfillment vs.
development of ego, sense of self, as preceding wish-full, which assumes
awareness of desire as occurring within the self
adaptation on the part of the mother.
Primary Maternal Preoccupation. Holding:
from physiological insult
account of infant’s skin sensitivity, visual sensitivity, sensitivity to
falling (action of gravity) and of the infant’s lack of knowledge of the
existence of anything other than itself
the whole routine of care throughout the day and night, and is not the
same with any two infants, because it is part of the infant, and no two
infants are alike
the minute day-to-day changes belonging to the infant’s growth and
development, both physical and psychological
experience of omnipotence
responsiveness, anticipation of child’s wants and needs > experience
minimal delay between desire and presentation of desired object or
in the responsive face of the mother, infant sees itself
full range of inner experience to developing sense of self
mother reflects her own mood and not the child’s:
Gradual failing of adaptation on the part of the mother
development hinges upon the steady presentation of the world to the infant
of infant not as a person who gets hungry and whose instinctual drives
must be met; but as an immature being who is all the time on the brink of
unthinkable anxiety -- going to pieces, falling forever, no relationship
to the body, disorientation.
Mother’s management of the body > experience of continuity in
compel the infant to react
Concern from birth with problem of:
is objectively perceived / what is subjectively conceived of
objective perception based on reality testing / primary creativity, use of illusion
Transitional objects: early stages of use of illusion
- a first or early “not-me” possession
- “...the infants growth takes the form of a continuous
interchange between inner and outer reality, each being enriched by the
other.” “The child is now not only a potential creator of the world, but
also the child becomes able to populate the world with samples of his or
her own inner life. SO, gradually,
the child is able to ‘cover’ any external event, and perception is almost
synonymous with creation. Here
again is a means by which the child gains control over external events as
well as over the inner workings of his or her own self.”
- Put a
lot of stock in play: p.635.
apperception more than anything else makes the individual feel that life
is worth living. Contrasted to this
is a relationship to external reality which is
one of compliance, the world and its details being recognized but only as
something to be fitted in with or demanding adaptation.
space between self and environment where an infinitely variable exchange
can take place.
draws from common pool of humanity in terms of cultural experiences
which provide the continuity in the human race that transcends
personal existence. Also an area of
doing. In the space one can live
creatively, discover and rediscover the self, and give something of the
self back to the world.
Based on Winnicott
Halucinatory entities or events
Imaginative entities or events
Transcendent objects prefigured by child’s transitional
Hard, undeniable facts
Actual entities or events