Basic Trust and Mistrust


Consistency, continuity – inside and outside

Based in maternal person’s sensitive car of the baby’s individual needs and a firm sense of personal trustworthiness with the trusted framework of their culture’s lifestyle



Toys and Reasons


The capacity of the ego to find recreation and self-cure in the activity of play.


Ben Rogers in Tom Sawyer: personating the Big Missouri.  Taking care of his body buy munching an apple, imagining control over many different things – the ship, the crew – sizing up the social situation when he see Tom working, Ben’s sense of his own freedom enhanced.


Play is a function of the ego, an attempt to  synchronize the bodily and the social processes with the self.

      Emphasis on the ego’s need to mast the various areas of life, especially those in which the individual finds his self, his body, and his social role wanting and trailing.

      An intermediate reality between phantasy and actuality in the purpose of play


The person in play is on vacation from external, social pressures and internal forces of desire, anxiety, fear, the internal demands that accompany us throughout life.

      Cf. “work” vs play.

      One steps pout of one’s usual use of space, of time, of the forces of fate and causality that have brought one to where she is, of social reality


The fort-Da game:  Dealing with pent up emotion, fear, frustration

      “Go away” and “there” (here) – a game of disappearance and return.

      Fantasy process by which the child adapts and and gains a sense of mastery over his situation

      The child’s mother and the child’s self – the game with the mirror, going away and coming back.

      Play as a microsphere in which the child establishes the capacities he needs and return to in order to replenish them – all the while moving in the dierctin of a grater sense of reality and mastery


The playing adult steps sideways in to another reality; the playing child advances forward to new stages of mastery.

      A child’s play is the infantile form of the human ability to deal with experience by creating model institutions and to master reality by experimenting and planning.

Blake: “The child’s toys and the old man’s reasons are the fruits of the two seasons”