ISLAM IN INDIA:
GENERAL FEATURES OF ISLAM
General Features of Islam
Š Founded in 7th Century by Muhammad Over 1.2 billion adherents, more than 20% of world's population. Second largest and fastest growing religion on the planet. Over 6 million in US. Largest number of Muslims in Indonesia
Š The Qur’an: Eternal words of Allah. Divine revelation to Muhammad.
1. Monotheism: the absolute unity and uniqueness of Allah
a. Cannot be represented by any image, or likened to anything created (Cf. popularity of divine representation in India)
b. Has no "associates," no consorts, sons, daughters. "Say, 'He is Allah, one. Allah, the Eternal. He has not begotten nor was he begotten, and He has no equal'" (112:1-4). Also, profession of faith: “No God but God”
Polytheists (e.g., Hindus but here Bedouins): deny the
sovereignty of Allah, God's revelation via Muhammad, the Last Judgment. Also:
denying one's obligation to Allah, being ungrateful.
2. The Meaning and purpose of human existence
A meaningful life is fully centered on God. The purpose of human existence is to
serve God in every sphere of life, and to do God's commands.
Islam = surrender, submission, obedience to God's will.
3. Social reform
a. One serves God in one's relationships with other people: the Qur'an is the only reliable basis of personal and social values.
b. Model yourself on God: compassionate, protective of the weak, just, opposed to evil in all forms.
Attack on authority of old, ancestral patterns of
behavior (the Bedouin sunna). De-emphasized importance of kinship, All human beings created to serve God;
all true Muslims are brothers.
Religious loyalty takes precedence over family loyalty. Personal accountability.
4. Day of Judgment
a. People who pursue worldly ends act as though there is no day of reckoning. Nothing else to hope or fear.
b. Dead resurrected -- all of life past and present will stand before God to be judged.
c. Unbelievers, selfish > eternal damnation in hell. Believers who respond to Allah's revelation > everlasting life in paradise.
d. Body and soul are perishable, but will be resurrected and experience either paradise or hell.
God's creation is good, but less valuable than
paradise.= a testing ground for eternity.
One must be ready to sacrifice all this of this world in the promise of
eternal fellowship with Allah.