Integrations of Dharma and Moksha
I. Notions of Dharma
1. Dharma as part of the Path of Action
dharma-focused traditions hold that it is necessary to uphold, preserve, perpetuate,
and refine the physical world generally, and human society specifically; Human
beings are affirmed as essentially social, governed by physical needs and must
live with other human beings
b. Definition: The word dharma refers to (a) the cosmic and social order and (b) the rules pertaining to it.
i. Dharma as structure, samsara as flow
i. Early Vedas – From Rta to dharma
1. Rigveda: Purusha Sukta
ii. Bhagavad Gita – each person responsible for own duty, social function, upholding order of society and so contributing to welfare of society as a whole
iii. Dharmashastras (“treatises on dharma”) – individual well-being and prosperity dependent on order of society and cosmos. Disorder is a constant threat (collapse of caste distinctions, etc.)
2. Varnadharma: the dharma-focused tradition are often concerned with the maintenance of caste system in order to preserve social and cosmic stability
a. Caste or varna: the Aryan ideal of social order
i. Bhramans, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, Sudras
b. Hierarchy: Purity and impurity
c. Complementarity: division of labor
d. Contextual nature of dharma
a. Dharma, Kama, Artha, Moksha
a. Brahmacarya – studenthood. Study of Vedas. Lasting about 12 years after initiation (upanayana). Education in home of preceptor, ritual skills, in exchange for service to teacher. Terminates with marriage.
b. Grhastya – householder.
Devoted to enjoyment of life, duties of care for family, acquisition of artha.
When one’s children are adults, temples graying.
c. Vanaprasthya – life in the forest. Hand over worldly affairs to sons. With wife. Devote oneself to moksha.
d. Sanyasa – world renunciation. Life of homeless ascetic, possesses nothing,
desires nothing but liberation
3. Bhagavad Gita:
a. The great War of the Mahabharata
b. Arujuna’s dilemma: to kill or not to kill
c. Action (in the world) vs. non-action (sanyasa)
d. Krishna’s counsel:
i. Nishkamakarma: Action without attachment to the fruits of one’s actions
ii. No karma accrued
iii. Live in the world and move toward moksha
2. Bhagavad Gita
5. Purusharthas (all 4)
Any locations on the map exercises and information from the course Timeline (top of syllabus) can appear on a quiz or exam.