1. Two general Features:
B. God of paradox (in later, developed forms)
A. Proto Siva: horns, lotus posture, lord of animals, ithyphallic.
B. Siva-Rudra: the howler.
C. Daksha’s sacrifice (Mahabharata)
D. Challenges heretical Brahmin sages in the forest
E. Unorthodox nature: Ecstacy, dance. The Shaiva traditions originate in non-brahmanical traditions and then became assimilated (in some measure).
F. God of the ascetics.
3. God of paradox – the "erotic ascetic" Dharma & moksha. Householder & ascetic
Transformation of the ascetic ideal: assimilated into the householder ideology (ashramas; Gita)
The emphasis in Shaivism is on asceticism, but it developes in ways that assert both asceticism and householding as two parts of a dynamic process that sustains the entire universe. A union of opposites. Cf. Cosmic Shiva: inclusive of all things.
3. Images: Visual Theologies
A. Lord of Yoga. Seated in meditation in the Himalayas, covered in ashes; third eye (burned
B. Shivling: phallus and yoni.
C. Ardhanarishvara: The Lord who is half woman
D. Nataraja: A play of divine energy, dynamic process of creation and destruction. (Cf. Visnu on celestial serpent). Chola dynasty (10th century).