After Gobind Singh (1708) - Modern History
· Aurangzeb’s efforts to impose Islam, assassinated 9th guru.
· Formation of the Khalsa. An external identity becomes mandatory
· Most of the 18th century. Continuous warfare with neighboring states and with Mughal forces, then Afghani forces.
· Heroic period. Great fighters.
Punjab becomes part of
· Sikhs proved to be resilient. British favored Sikhs as marital race, recruited them for army, preserved their traditional dress, morale;
· 20s: Sikhs struggled with British authorities to keep control of their religious centers (gurdwaras).
Later concerns for more state independence >
extremists wanting a separate Khalistan.
Group of extremists under leadership of Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindrawale,
lodged themselves in the
From Outsider’s Perspective: two prevailing features, how are they reconciled: mystical emphasis, worldly and martial emphasis
· Akal Purakh - Timeless Being. Vahiguru. Nanak’s belief and practice was essentially mystical, only mystical experience can grasp the meaning
· Akal Purakh looks graciously on the suffering of mankind and communicates an understanding of nam through the word (sabad) and the guru
· Nanak as the embodiment of the eternal guru
o Line of succession, but one guru - like a single flame that lights a series of torches
The divine order of the universe = harmony
nam simaran = the inner discipline of “remembering the name” > brings one within the divine harmony
Repetition of a word or mantra
Singing of devotional hymns
Earns karam that provides release
Shift toward militancy with Hargobind Singh (son of Arjan)
Doctrine of miri-piri: signals this shift
Khanda: The symbol derives its name from the double-edged sword (also called a Khanda) which appears at the center of the logo.
"There is Only One God". The first two words in the Guru Granth Sahib & one of the cornerstones of Sikhism. They appear at the beginning of the Mul Mantra written by Guru Nanak describing the qualities of God in the Japji.
Gurdwara: “the guru’s door,” “by means of the Guru [‘s grace]
After death of the last guru, Gobind Singh, the mystical guru remains present within the Granth Sahib > Guru Granth Sahib